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On i Casualties.org, each fatality is designated as ’hostile’ or non- hostile.

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Not all fatality rates can be estimated, however, because relevant denominators (period-specific troop numbers by nationality) are lacking.

Data on fatalities by date, place and cause have been derived from the i website, to which we make acknowledgement.

Methods Cause and date of coalition deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan are as listed in Casualties.org, where each death is designated as hostile or non-hostile.

Numbers deployed in 2006 were available for UK and Canada, and for US to Iraq.

Insightful analysis involves not only the numbers of military fatalities by nationality and cause, but computation of rates per 1000 pys.

and how readily those who die can be replaced by new recruits are critical questions, both epidemiologically and militarily, but are beyond the scope of this article.

Thus, if a helicopter was brought down by RPG attack, the fatalities were coded to helicopter; and if a soldier died by small arms fire and RPG attack, the death was coded to RPG.

Short-term forecasts of military fatalities can either assume Poisson variation, which entails no clustering, or can take clustering explicitly into account by recognizing that deaths occur singly, in small clusters of mean size m1, or in rarer large clusters of mean size m2.

Uncertainty or 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are used interchangeably and, because they pertain to 140-day periods or longer, are Poisson based.

Thus, uncertainty may be under-estimated by failing to account fully for extra-Poisson variation.

IEDs claimed three out of five hostile deaths in Iraq, only a quarter in Afghanistan. In period 1, 50/117 military deaths in Afghanistan were UK or Canadian from 6750 personnel, a fatality rate of 19/1000/year, nearly four times the US rate of 5/1000/year in Iraq (based on 280 deaths).

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