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He probably picked up an idea of this nature from some European friends. And his mother went into the chamber where he had told her not to go. 1 In Berleburg I have been told that the Gypsies dwell at the end of the little town.

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At Kizanlik, a small town near Adrianople, they employ Gypsy women as servants in the Ladies' Baths. They enjoined " a strait search and good strong watch to be begun on Sunday at night about 9 of the clock which shalbe the 10th of July," and "to continue the same al that night until four of the clock in the afternoon of the next day." Baines (History of Lancashire, ed. One of the folds is made to resemble the middle of the girdle, so that whoever shall thrust a skewer into it would think he held it fast to the table, whereas, when he has so done, the person with whom he plays may take hold of both ends and draw it away. Then close up handsomely the knot which will be yet somewhat loose, and pull the handkercher so with your right hand, as 20 EARLY ANNALS OF THE GYPSIES IN ENGLAND. In 1591, Robert Hilton, of Denver, in Norfolk, was convicted of felony " for callinge himself by the name of an Egiptian," but on December 22 he was specially pardoned (Calendar of State Papers Domestic Elizabeth, Docquets, vol. And they laugh in themselves at the lenity of the law, and the timorousness of the executioners of it," etc. And when he saw the maiden, how did she please his heart ! The cottages, such as they were, in which I found the Gypsies located, were more like caves. Kowa hi rnidshto : Akowa 1 Puchmajer also mentions, in the preface to his Romani Cib (Prague, 1821), that in Bohemia there are people not Gypsies, called Parne (Whites). K is also changed into or 6 in the words va6erdan ( vakerdan or vakerden), they talk ; 6er ( = khcr), house; 1 and the aspirate ph is changed into h, ex.

My observations on the Asiatic Gypsies, or rather on the Gypsies roaming on the plains of Asia Minor, are very meagre. This appears to have been a game much practised by the Gypsies in the time of Shakspere, and is still in vogue " (Brand, Popular Antiquities, by Hazlitt, London, 1870,11 325). the left hand end may be neer to the knot ; then it will seem a true and a firm knot. As for the maiden, the lad pleased her just as well. And they formed a strong love [ai astardintf on ek drdyostea zurali]. The people did not live exclusively by themselves, for there were also a few German men and women among them. These have joined the Gypsies, who, in distinction to them, call themselves Kale (Blacks) ; they marry into Gypsy families, and share their wandering way of life.

These are but three out of many theories, besides which there are a number of minor questions, as, When did the Gypsies first set foot in England, or in North and South VOL. What was the value of his vast collections we can only conjecture ; for from that day to this no trace of them has come to light. His cries were heard by some workmen at a neighbouring farm, but, thinking that highwaymen were at their work, they left the poor fellow to his fate. His companions went to the Greek priest in the village to have him buried, but the priest, knowing that up to that day he had been called Mustapha, was unwilling to bury him. Many editors also have started with some scholar's preconceived theory, and instead of first finding their facts, and then deducing a theory to account for these, have contented themselves with casting about to find facts to bolster up a theory already made. He admitted that it was the very shell of shells a baro sereskeri skarkuni, or famous sea-snail. What is the origin of the Gypsy word dze Jca, which signifies satisfaction, plea- sure, delight 1 Quite unknown elsewhere, it is met with in several of the tales of the Polish Gypsies. : Oda leske pre dze Jca pelds that fell in agreement with him (i.e. But as all fruit to be enjoyed in perfection must be eaten in the land where it grows, so Gypsy music never seems to be the same in London as in Austria or Hungary.

And there is the Prehistoric theory, by which there have been Gypsies in Europe for more than two thousand years, by which Europe, or a great portion of Europe, owes to the Gypsies its knowledge of metallurgy. Any- how, we trust to preserve much information that might otherwise perish. Kounavine, a Russian physician who had abandoned his profession, to wander for thirty-five years among the Gypsies of Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa. Kounavine, but there lives not the Romany Rye that has not something new to impart to his fellow-students. One night one of them, called Mustapha, in passing a river with his bear, got imbedded in the mud up to his waist. But unfortunately the really important and trustworthy collections are still so few that we have almost exhausted their number when we have enumerated the names of Grimm, Von Halm, Campbell, Asbjornsen, Ealston, Galloway, Gill, Pitre', Crane, Krauss, Sebillot, Luzel, Leland, Temple, and Cosquin. It was the shell the precious beautiful little shell on which the Romany in search of a fetish had set his heart ; the shell which would bring him luck, and cause him to be envied, and ensure him admiration in the tents of the wanderers from Paris to Constantinople. 158-168) taken from the lips of a Gypsy regarding their origin ? Where and from whom may we look for articles on the Gypsies of Great Britain and America like those of Dr. Real Gypsy music is to those who have once learned to love it, like opium or haschish, deeply fascinating, strangely exciting, and more suggestive of magic than any other influence.

On the farms they are employed at times in mowing and reaping ; sometimes they plough, but they are generally weak, and cannot stand at their work as the Bulgarians. They are never seen at church except on great festival days. In general they cannot endure fatigue or long marches. In 1577 the Privy Council issued an order, signed by the Lord Chancellor Sir Nicolas Bacon and others, for the apprehension of Eowland Gabriel [cf. 19 stage direction for the scene, says : " Two hucksters, one woman, one like a Giptian, the rest poore rogues " ; and the scene contains the following line " How now, Giptian ? And at a late sessions a tall man, a man sturdy, and ancient traveller, was committed by a Justice and brought to the sessions, and had judgment to be whipped. This account of the size of the gangs is confirmed by a letter, dated November 21, 1596, from the Privy Council to the Eecorder of London, Mr. So the lad killed eleven dragons, and the youngest remained. In the provinces of Danzig, Marienwerder, Potsdam, Frankfurt, Coeslin, Bromberg, Breslau, Oppeln, Merseburg, Erfurt, the Gypsies are mostly musicians and puppet showmen; while in Frankfurt and Coeslin they have shooting-galleries. If an Indian origin is not- claimed for all our folk-tales, Mr. A Hungarian gentleman who has been all his life devoted to Eomany music had never so much as heard of some of their best loved heart and home melodies. In the Gypsy texts which I am about to give, I shall keep the phonetic Croatian transcription of Dr. As to the consonants, some of them are now and then omitted from the middle or from the end of words ; viz. This is undoubtedly owing to the innate flightiness and want of reflection proper to the Gypsy mind in general. Therefore the personal pronouns in the Bosnian-Gypsy dialect, as noted by Dr.

They work generally on the farms as basketmakers and ironmongers. A number of people have assured me, that in the cities of Sophia, Silistria, Samakou, Turnevo, and Kustchuk, there are a great many public women of pure Gypsy blood. Thomas Grabriells, 1559], Katherine Deago [Spanish, Diego], and six others, who were tried on the 18th of April at Aylesbury for feloniously keeping company with other vagabonds vulgarly called and calling themselves Egyptians, and counterfeiting, transferring, and altering themselves in dress, language, and be- haviour. all amort, knave, for want of company." This I believe to be the first dramatic appearance of a Gipsy in England. 1841 ; Burns, Parish Registers; Blackwood's Magazine, 1817, vol. He, present at the bar, in the face and hearing of the whole bench, swore a great oath, that if he were whipped it should be the dearest whipping to some that ever was. Topcliffe, and Sir William Skevington, the Lieutenant of the Tower, and inventor of the torture popularly called the Scavenger's Daughter, described in Tanner's Societas Europcea, p. The letter states that " of late certaine lewd persons to the number of eighty gathered together, calling themselves Egipcians and wanderers through divers countyes of the realme," and were " stayed in North- amptonshire, whereupon we caused some of the ringleaders of them to be brought up hither, and have committed them to prison." The Council required the Eecorder " to examine the said lewd persons upon suche artycles and informations as you shall receive from the Lord Cheife Justice of Her Majesties Benche ; and yf you shall not be hable by faire meanes to bringe them to reveale their lewd be- havior, practyses, and ringleaders, then wee thinke it meet they shall be removed to Brydewell and there be put to the manacles, whereby they may be constrained to utter the truth in those matters con- cerning their lewd behaviour that shall be fitt to be demanded of them" (Privy Council Book; Jardine, The Use of Torture in the Criminal Law of England previously to the Commomuealth, London 1837, p. And the lad went out to him, and took and fought with him, and fought half a day. In the other provinces they mostly lead a wandering life. 'Tis true ; there 's magic in the web of it ; a sibyl, that had number'd in the world the sun to make two hundred compasses, in her prophetic fury sew'd the work : the worms were hallow'd that did breed the silk ; and it was dyed in mummy, which the skilful conserv'd of maidens' hearts. Groome's contention may be taken as already proved ; but we must not forget the claims of Egypt as the cradle of much early human culture, and Benfey tells us that metem- psychosis an elemental idea in folk-tales was itself carried to the 116 REVIEWS. Sir Eichard Burton attributes the origination of all art and culture to Egypt, but even this is by no means incon- sistent with Mr. Zigeuner" (Magazin fur die Lit des In-und Auslandes, 1887, 131 f.) ; (7) v. And of these latter Professor Herrmann has made a noble collection. Krauss, as being nearest to Miklosich's orthography, which ought to be universally adopted for every Gypsy dialect. Very few valuable observations can be made upon the phonetic peculiarities of this dialect from its written examples only. The principal is the adopted Servian mute semi- vowel ^ (b) instead of e and i of other Gypsy-dialects ; viz. The terminal vowel o sounds sometimes as u, as among the Polish Gypsies ; e.g. Sao ( tavo), child ; pliall ( =phrall), brother ; romi ( = romni), wife ; ka* ( = Isa M), tree ; ame ( = amen), we ; tumc ( = tumeri), you, etc. In fact, the Gypsy scarcely discerns the very meaning of the person expressed in a Polish, Servian, German, or other phrase ; and, taking very often the 3d person for the 2d or 1st, he trans- i This tendency has been noted by Fr.

Zulia, an excellent physician at Volo, who went among them and collected a great many words. Bugatchelo, a physician in Velizze, some eighty miles to the north-west of Salonica. FOR the convenience of those who have not easy access to " The Papers of the Manchester Literary Club," I have recast a paper written by me for that Club in 1880. In 1522 the churchwardens of Stratton, in Cornwall, received twenty-pence from the " Egypcions " for the use of the Church House (Arclmologia xlvj.) In 1526 Skelton published his Garland of Laurel, of which line 1455 reads as follows " By Mary Gipcy, quod scripsi scripsi," the allusion being to Sancta Maria ^Egyptiaca, but showing the early abbreviation of "Egyptian" into "Gypsy," which is also found in Shakespere, as will appear later on. On June 22, 1549, the young king, Edward vi., writes in his EARLY ANNALS OF THE GYPSIES IN ENGLAND. 45 ; Burnet, History of the Reformation, folio, London, 1681, part ii. i.), a Bill was before the Commons "for making the coming of Egyptians into the Realm Felony! There appear to have been fears of a rising of the people, and warning is given that all tales, news, spreading of unlawful books, should be stayed and sharply punished." The letters on this subject to the Lord-Lieutenant of the North and to the Sheriff of Yorkshire are to be found in Strype's Annals of the Reformation (vol. then will I take thee, and thou shalt be mine empress." " I love thee," she said. But I saw a dream, to eat a suckling from the sow in the other world." Then the lad began to cry, for his mother will die. Then he went to his sweet- heart, and told her, " Maiden, my mother will die. Take my horse with the twelve wings, and mind the sow doesn't seize you, else she '11 eat both you and the horse." So the lad took her horse and departed. They are entirely Germanised, arid only use some Eomany words in intercourse with their wandering comrades.

The place is called Velizze in Greek, and Kiupruli in Turkish. Crispi of Bellova, west of Sophia, in the very heart of Thrace. I have incorporated such further materials as have since come in my way, and hope it may induce others to contribute their gleanings. Samuel Reid, in his Art of Juggling (1612, signature Bb), assigns 1528 as the year when the Gypsies invaded England, stating that it was then (in 1612) about an hundred years ago, about the twentieth year of King Henry the Eighth, when the " Egyptians " collected in the south of England, having been banished from their own country, and excelled in quaint tricks and devices. 13 journal, "There was a privy search made through Sussex for all vagabonds, gipsies, conspirators, prophesiers, all players, and such like " (Blackwood's Magazine, vol. ' It was taken to the Lords on the 1st, and read on the 3d, 5th, and 10th of December (Lords' Journal, i. Valentyne Tyndale, on the 21st of June, had a passport to go to 'y e back streate (! Then the dragon said to her, "What will you do, to escape from your son, that we may be left to ourselves. pretend to be ill Te kerfa tu nasfali just as in the Anglo-Eomany], and say you have seen a dream, that he must bring you a suckling of the sow in the other world ; that if he does not bring it you, you will die ; but if he bring it you, say that you will recover." Then she went into the house, and tied up her head, and made herself ill. And she has seen a dream, that I must bring her a porker from the other world." The maiden said, " Go, and be prudent. He arrived there ; and when the sun was midway in its course, he went to the little pigs, and took one, and fled. In Sasmannshausen the Gypsy colony offered a wholly different picture from that in Klein-Rekeitscheu.

D., the Jat ancestors of our Gypsies were summoned from India to Persia, and from Persia gradually wandered west- ward. But if from a hundred we can increase our member- ship to twice or three times that number, the Journal will be proportionally enlarged, and Gypsy camp-meetings, at different centres, might hereafter be duly organised. They had all Musulman names, and were considered Musul- man Bohemians. Much more might already have been done had the editors of these always had a scientific grasp of the conditions of the problem. Neither did they want money : my dross might perish with me. 4- "PEOPLE or TURKEY." Who wrote this book, and what is the legend (recorded at pp. The Almanack de Gotha for 1888 gives : Eoumania, 200,000 Gypsies in 1876 ; Servia, "29,020 se servent de la langue bohe"mienne," in 1884 ; Bulgaria, 37,600 in 1881 ; Eastern Koumelia, 27,190 on 13th January 1885 ; and Hungary, 79,393 on 31st December 1880. Then- leader, a certain Jasper Smith, styled "the King of the Fiddlers," spoke with the greatest contempt of "them tadpoles," as he quaintly designated the crotchets and minims which are a sine qua non to most modern musicians. 123 alike, yet is always so wonderful and wild and sweet.

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