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Also among the second wave were Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse and the army of Provençals."It was this second wave of crusaders which later passed through Asia Minor, captured Antioch in 1098 and finally took Jerusalem 15 July 1099." At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th century.

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Mobs of peasants and laymen travelled to Anatolia where they came up against the Turks, on the way attacking populations of Jews in the Rhineland.

They were decisively defeated at the Battle of Civetot in October.

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks.

The heart of Western Europe had been stabilized after the Christianization of the Saxon, Viking, and Hungarian peoples by the end of the 10th century.

However, the breakdown of the Carolingian Empire gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had little to do but fight among themselves.They arrived at Jerusalem in June 1099 and took the city by assault on 7 July 1099, massacring the defenders.A brief attempt by the Saracens to recapture Jerusalem was repulsed at the Battle of Ascalon.During their conquests, the crusaders established the Latin Rite crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa.This was contrary to the wishes of the Eastern Rite Byzantines, who wanted the land that the Muslims took from them returned, rather than occupied by Latin Catholics.Its origin is linked both with the political situation in Catholic Christendom, including the political and social situation in 11th-century Europe, the rise of a reform movement within the papacy, as well as the military and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in the East.

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