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Two mouse and rat genes (SCD1 and SCD2) and a single human SCD gene have been cloned and characterized (9–12).

Other SCD c DNAs and genes have been isolated from different species including yeast (13), ovine (14), and hamster (15), and the regulation of their expression is currently being studied by several research groups.

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This review will focus on our current understanding of the genetic regulation of the stearoyl-Co A desaturase in response to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol.

Organization of the mouse SCD1 and SCD2 promoters and the nucleotide sequence similarity of the 110-bp segment in the 5′-flanking region of the mouse SCD2 and SCD1 genes.

The sequence between –201 to –54 in the SCD2 gene is 77% identical to the sequence between –472 to –325 in the SCD1 gene (Fig. The regulatory elements responsible for polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol regulation of the SCD genes are contained in the sequences within the conserved region.

In the past several years we have studied the genetic regulation of the mouse stearoyl-Co A desaturase by dietary and hormonal factors and also during fat cell differentiation.

Promoter elements that are responsible for the polyunsaturated fatty acid repression colocalize with the promoter elements for SREBP-mediated regulation of the SCD genes.

It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the genetic regulation of the stearoyl-Co A desaturase in response to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol.—Ntambi, J. Regulation of stearoyl-Co A desaturase by polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol.SRE, sterol regulatory element; NF-Y, CCAAT-binding factor or nuclear factor Y binding site; C/EBP, CCAAT enhancer binding protein sequence.Oleic acid and palmitoleic acid are the major monounsaturated fatty acids in fat depots and membrane phospholipids.The reason for having two SCD isoforms is not known but could be related to the substrate specificities of the two isomers and their regulation through tissue-specific expression.Although certain regions of the promoter of the two mouse genes differ markedly, there is one region with high nucleotide sequence homology.These chemicals include additives or ingredients in pesticides, common household products, food, drugs, dyes, or solvents.

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